The Year in Review
From Congress to the states, 2013 was a banner year for child care and early learning. Despite a roller coaster ride with the federal budget, early learning initiatives remained a high priority. As you can see below, much progress has been made to pave the way for continued success in 2014.
Bipartisan Child Care Reauthorization legislation Approved by Senate Committee:
In June, bipartisan legislation, S. 1086, the Child Care and Development Block Grant Act of 2013, was introduced in the Senate by Senator Barbara Mikulski (D-MD), Senator Richard Burr (R-NC), Senator Tom Harkin (D-IA), and Senator Lamar Alexander (R-TN). The measure was referred to the Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (HELP) Committee and was approved in September. For a summary of the legislation as approved by the committee, click here. CCDBG has not been reauthorized in 17 years. At a time when Congress is polarized on so many issues, it was great to see a bipartisan effort to strengthen the quality of child care. Hopefully, the full Senate (and the House) will approve the legislation in 2014.
HHS Proposed Revisions to Child Care Regulations to Strengthen the Quality of Care
In May, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) proposed revised child care regulations for the first time since 1998. Public comments were accepted on the proposed rules through August. The intent of the rules is to strengthen the health and safety of children in child care and to promote their healthy development. For a comparison of the bipartisan Senate bill and the proposed HHS rules, click here. To see public comments about the rules (and to sort by topic), click here. The final HHS rules are expected to be published in 2014.
Strong Proposals Made for Preschool for All Children
In his 2013 State of the Union Address, President Obama called for Preschool for All Children. As part of his budget proposed to Congress last spring, the President proposed a 10 year $75 billion plan to expand pre-k for all children. The proposal called for quality benchmarks: state level standards for early learning, qualified teachers in every classroom, and comprehensive data and assessment systems. All 4 year-old children from families at 200% of poverty or below would be eligible. The President’s plan also called for $1.4 billion in new Early Head Start-Child Care partnerships and an expansion of the Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program (MIECHV).
In November, the Strong Start for America’s Children Act was introduced in the Senate by Senator Harkin (S. 1697) and in the House by Representative Miller (H.R. 3461). The measures embody the concepts of the President’s plan. Preschool grants would go to local education agencies (LEAs), including charter schools, early education programs or a consortium of school districts and early education programs. After full enrollment of 4 year-old children, states would be allowed to enroll 3 year-olds. States would be required to set-aside 20 percent of funding in the first 4 years for quality related activities and may set-aside 15 percent for high quality infant and toddler programs. The measure also includes non-renewable 3 year preschool development grants. Early Head Start-Child Care Partnerships would be authorized at $1.4 billion. Some child care provisions were included in the measure to support child care training, licensure, compensation initiatives and health & safety for which $100 million was authorized. To date, the measure has garnered 23 cosponsors in the Senate and 64 cosponsors in the House.
2013 Race to the Top Early Learning Challenge Grants: In December, six states received RTT-ELC grants totaling $280 million – Georgia, Kentucky, Michigan, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Vermont. Information about the 2013 grants is located here.
RTT-ELC Grants in Progress: 2011 Award Winners – California, Delaware, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, North Carolina, Ohio, Rhode Island, and Washington. Information on 2011 grants is located here. 2012 Award Winners – Colorado, Illinois, New Mexico, Oregon, and Wisconsin. Information on 2012 grants is located here.
What a roller coaster ride this year’s federal budget activity was.
January 2013: The original sequester (the across the board cut that was included in a 2011 budget deal, which Congress delayed until January 2013 as a hammer in the event deficit reduction targets were not met) was pushed to March 1. The sequester was supposed to be implemented on January 2 and represent a 50/50 reduction between defense and non-defense spending to the tune of $109 billion. Appropriation bills were not completed in 2012 and a continuing resolution was enacted to freeze spending through March 27.
March 2013: Despite additional time before the postponed sequester was scheduled to occur, Congress did not reach agreement on deficit reduction. As a result, a sequester of about $80 billion (7.3% in defense spending and 5.1% in non-defense) occurred on March 1. The House passed its budget resolution (H.Con.Res. 25). The Senate passed its budget resolution (S.Con.Res. 8). These measures do not become law. Instead, they act as a management tool for Congress – a blueprint for spending, revenues, and deficit reduction. The measures could not be more different, which led to a fiscal impasse for the next 7 months.
September 2013: Fiscal year 2013 ended September 30 without Congress passing appropriation bills for the new fiscal year beginning October 1.
October 2013: With Congress unable to reach a budget agreement, the government shut down for 16 days. Finally, a deal was reached which extended current spending through January 15, 2014 and charged a Committee with making recommendations by December 13 to deal with the looming sequester.
December 2013: Senate Budget Chair Patty Murray (D-WA) and House Budget Chair Paul Ryan (R-WI) led a committee announcing a new budget deal in December. The agreement replaced $63 billion of the sequestration cuts for 2014 and 2015 with other savings measures. Wait a minute, you must be thinking. The sequester again? We already had it in March. There’s another sequester? Yes. The 2011 Budget Control Act set caps on funding through 2021 and called for $1.2 trillion in deficit reduction. Each year through 2021, there will be a $109 billion sequester (equally divided between defense and non-defense spending) to achieve the budget savings called for under the 2011 budget deal. The Murray-Ryan budget deal will reduce the sequester in January 2014 by $45 billion and by $18 billion in January 2015. While this is good news (relatively), it still means that there will be a reduction in spending of about $64 billion in January 2014 (split equally between defense and nondefense spending). So, where are we now on the budget? The good news is that the size of the sequester will be smaller. It is now up to the House and Senate Appropriations Committees to determine funding levels for various programs with a little more funding to work with absent the Murray-Ryan agreement. With the current CR scheduled to expire on January 15, we can expect early January funding decisions to be made. Stay tuned.
Child Care Provider Background Checks. Children should be safe in child care and people with a violent history should not be in the business of caring for unrelated children. 2013 was a banner year for states passing child care provider background check legislation. Massachusetts led the way by passing fingerprint check legislation in January 2013 (effective September 1, 2013). In March, Utah passed legislation (effective July 2013) and Georgia passed legislation (effective January 2014). Indiana passed legislation (effective July 2013) requiring all regulated child care providers to have a fingerprint check against FBI databases. Oklahoma passed legislation in 2011, which became effective in November 2013. Kentucky revised regulations in the fall to require an address search of the sex offender registry for all registered providers. Virginia pre-filed child care background check bills in the Senate and House to be considered in January 2014.
Child Care Provider Health & Safety. States continued to pass legislation improving health and safety requirements. Arkansas, Indiana, Minnesota, Texas, and Utah passed legislation. Kentucky revised regulations to strengthen health and safety policies.
State Pre-K Programs. Hawaii and Mississippi passed legislation establishing statewide voluntary preschool. In December, the Mississippi State Board of Education awarded $2 million to 11 consortiums to provide pre-k for 4 year-olds. All of the consortiums include at least one school district, as well as other groups such as Head Start, private child care centers, and foundations. Texas doubled the size of its pre-k program in Dallas.
Early Learning Improvements. Colorado created the Infant and Toddler Quality and Availability Grant program, which was funded at $3 million beginning in July 2013. Minnesota established an Early Learning Scholarship program for families with children who will be age 3 or 4 by September 1 with income at or below 185% of the poverty line. Scholarships are capped at $5,000 per year. Rhode Island established a Child Care Assistance Program Parent Advisory Council to advise the Governor and state agencies on issues related to the quality, affordability, and accessibility of child care offered through the state subsidy program. Washington established an Early Start Program – a continuum of early learning programs from birth to age five, which includes: home visiting and parent education programs; the early achievers program (the state’s QRIS); integrated full day and part day, high quality early learning programs; and high quality preschool for children in families at or below 110% of the federal poverty line.
State QRIS. Nebraska passed legislation directing the State Department of Education and the Department of Health and Human Services to collaborate to develop and implement a quality rating system, establish quality rating criteria, assign a quality scale, and provide incentives and support, including professional development to participating child care providers. Washington will require preschool programs receiving state funds to enroll in the state’s QRIS and maintain a minimum score level.
Key 2013 Reports:
- Confronting the Child Care Eligibility Maze: Simplifying and Aligning with Other Work Supports (CLASP & the Urban Institute)
- Investing in Our Future: The Evidence Base on Preschool Education, (Foundation for Child Development)
- Number and Characteristics of Early Care and Education (ECE) Teachers and Caregivers: Initial Findings from the National Survey of Early Care and Education (National Survey of Early Care and Education, research sponsored by the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation)
- Child Care Decision Making Literature Review (Child Trends, Urban Institute, George Mason University)
- Caring for Babies: How State Child Care Policies Can Support Infants and Toddlers, Powerpoint, Full Report: Better for Babies: A Study of State Infant and Toddler Child Care Policies (Center for Law and Social Policy)
- We Can Do Better: Ranking of State Child Center Regulations and Oversight (Child Care Aware of America, April 2013)
- Budget Deal is Small in Scale and Falls Short in Some Ways, But Represents Modest Step Forward (Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, December 2013)
- P – 3 Policies, 2013 Legislative Session (November 2013, Education Commission of the States)
- Reforming Head Start: What Re-Competition Means for the Federal Government’s Pre-K Program (New America)
- Pivot Point: State Child Care Assistance Policies 2013 (National Women’s Law Center)
2013 Interesting Policy Databases
- Policy Profiles for States and Territories: Early Childhood Education Technical Assistance ProfessionalsCoaches, Mentors, and Consultants (NAEYC)
- The CCDF Policies Database Book of Tables: Key Cross-State Variations in CCDF Policies as of October 1, 2012 (December 2013)
2013 Census Bureau Quick Tools
- Quick Facts by State
- American Fact Finder
- How U.S. Students Compare Internationally (December 2013)
- American Indian and Alaskan Native Tribes (2010 Census Data)
Interactive Map: In December, the Census Bureau released Census Explorer, a new interactive map that gives users easier access to neighborhood-level statistics. The map uses updated statistics from the 2008-2012 American Community Survey (ACS).
Interested in finding Census Bureau data about your community? Watch this fact finder webinar hosted by Census Bureau Experts.
My Congressional District gives users quick and easy access to selected statistics collected by the Census Bureau through the American Community Survey. The American Community Survey provides updated detailed demographic, social and economic statistics every year.
Coming in January 2014 from the Census Bureau:
Dynamics of Economic Well-Being: Poverty 2009-2011 — Analytical report on the duration of poverty spells and the frequency of transitions into and out of poverty based on the Survey of Income and Program Participation. It focuses on episodic and chronic poverty, length of poverty, exits from poverty and the characteristics of the affected population. (Scheduled for release Jan. 7.)
Measuring Alternative Educational Credentials — The Census Bureau’s first-ever report on the number and characteristics of adults with educational credentials other than academic degrees, such as a professional certification or license, or educational certificate. The data, based on the Survey of Income and Program Participation, pertain to fall 2012. (Scheduled for release Jan. 16.)
2014 Road Forward
The good news for 2013 was that progress on the early learning front was made and important markers were set. Thank you to state child care administrators, parents, advocates, child care providers, child care experts and everyone who works every day to improve the quality of early learning settings.
We’re on the road, we need to continue building on the successes we’ve had. Together, we can make a difference to ensure that all children have access to safe, quality, affordable child care and early learning settings.