On March 25, the U.S. House Education and the Workforce Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary and Secondary Education held a hearing on child care quality. “The Foundation for Success: Strengthening the Child Care and Development Block Grant Program,” was a chance for the Committee with jurisdiction over our nation’s largest source of child care funding to review current policies and practice.
The expert panel at the hearing testifying and responding to questions from Members of Congress:
- Paula Koos, Executive Director, Oklahoma Child Care Resource & Referral Association
- Linda Kostantenaco, President, National Child Care Association
- Dr. Olivia Golden, Executive Director, Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP)
- Gloria Jarmon, Deputy Inspector General for Audit Services, Office of Inspector General, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Overall, the hearing focused on the affordability, availability, and quality of child care and the services funded under the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG), the law that allocates funds to the states for child care. CCDBG serves about 1.5 million low-income children throughout the country and invests about $1 billion in activities related to the quality of child care (i.e., activities related to strengthening the workforce and the quality of child care programs, including basic health and safety protections for children).
The reality today is that most parents work. And, in order for families who have young children to work, they need to obtain child care. Finding and affording child care is not easy for parents and most find it a stressful process. The hearing highlighted the role of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies within the states to both help parents find quality child care and help child care providers offer quality child care.
Paula Koos, Executive Director of the Oklahoma Child Care Resource & Referral Association told policymakers about the unique role of child care resource and referral. She talked about the importance of consumer education so that parents can make informed choices when selecting child care. “ In too many communities today, child care is hard for parents to find, hard to afford, and too often of questionable quality. For low income parents, the task is even more difficult. There are more than 600 Child Care Resource and Referral agencies throughout the country, serving nearly every zip code, assisting parents in finding child care. They help make a stressful and chaotic process calmer and more understandable and help parents make better informed choices in child care. The reality is that there is a large gap between parent expectations and state policy.”
Ms. Koos told policymakers about the gap between parent expectations and child care policies within states. “Parents think that a child care license is some type of gold standard, in short, the state’s seal of approval in order to offer child care. Parents assume a license means that adults providing child care have had a background check and training specific to child care. Parents believe there are required health and safety protections for their children, and some expert does inspections to ensure compliance with laws and policies for child care. Parents also assume that all child care settings are monitored when, in many states, large numbers of providers are legally exempt from oversight.”
“Child Care Resource and Referral has worked with parents in Oklahoma for more than 30 years. We have eight agencies that serve families in all 77 counties to offer consumer education and referrals to help families make better informed child care choices. We do not make recommendations about child care programs to any family. However, we provide them with information so that they can make an informed decision that meets the needs of their family. Finding child care is a stressful time for parents and our services help to alleviate that stress.”
Ms. Koos also told policymakers about the role that CCR&R plays with regard to strengthening the workforce – a key element to improving the quality of child care. “We offer training, technical assistance and consultation to providers. Training is provided in both child-related and business requirements. From guiding people who are thinking about launching a child care business, to assisting providers to offer the best quality of care for children, we offer many services.”
“Training is related to strengthening the quality of the workforce – the competence and skills of the workforce. Technical assistance has many forms, but one of the most important is to ensure that those who have taken a training can translate that training to effective practice. What we know from the research is that child to staff interaction is one of the most important factors in improving child outcomes. Just because someone has attended a training, does not necessarily mean that they can effectively implement what they have learned,” said Koos.
“Our agencies offer technical assistance or, TA, on the phone and on-site,” said Koos. One area of TA that she particularly urged the committee to consider is business related technical assistance. “There has been so much focus on child development, which we can all agree is extremely important, we often fail to recognize that almost all child care programs are a small business. In 2012, we commissioned a study, “The Economic Role of Oklahoma’s Child Care Industry,” which found that the state’s 4,100 child care programs represented a network of small businesses, many of which are women owned and operated, that generate nearly $500 million in revenue and provide employment for about 20,500 workers with earnings of $290 million annually,” said Koos.
“Child care is a business. Business related technical assistance can assist child care providers with operating more efficiently and effectively. When you think about quality programs, please think as well, about the ability of child care programs not just to offer trained and competent staff, but also to use sound fiscal and management practices, which are the foundation to quality programs and essential to their sustainability,” said Koos.
Ms. Koos told policymakers that Oklahoma does not have a perfect system, but rather, a system with a stake in the ground for safety, accountability, and quality. “It’s been 17 years without reauthorization of CCDBG. We have the research on state policies. We know from the research what can be translated to best practice for child care safety and child development. I believe it’s time to provide some minimum protections for all our children and to ensure that public dollars are spent in an accountable way,” said Koos. She urged the Committee to take action to:
- Improve safety protections for children. Require comprehensive background checks for child care providers and volunteers who care for unrelated children. Set minimum health and safety protections for all providers who care for CCDBG subsidized children.
- Strengthen the Child Care Workforce. Require those who work in child care to have at least 30 hours of pre-service training and 24 hours of annual training. These are the recommendations from pediatric experts (see the National Resource Center for Health and Safety, Caring for Our Children recommendations).
- Enhance Monitoring. Establish that programs accepting children whose care is paid for by CCDBG should have an inspection prior to licensure and at least once annually.
- Improve Quality. Increase the quality set-aside for activities related to improving the quality of child care.
- Subsidy Rates. Child care is expensive. It is hard for most families to afford; it is not merely a challenge for families in poverty. Consider a study by the National Academy of Sciences to review the cost of child care and recommend ways to design a better system.
Ms. Koos told policymakers, “I understand and support the need for state flexibility; however, at the same time, there needs to be some minimum core health and safety protections for all children in child care in our nation.”
To view the video of the hearing or the complete testimony of the witnesses, click here.
To view materials Paula submitted for the Committee record, click below:
- Brief One Pager on Child Care Resource & Referral throughout the country
- Brief One Pager summarizing the research on state health & safety policy
- Brief One Pager on child tragedies related to a lack of state health & safety policy
On March 13, the Senate approved a CCDBG reauthorization bill requiring background checks for child care providers, important improvements to promote the health and safety of children in child care, as well as more accountable monitoring practices. The House is expected to draft similar legislation in the coming months. The House Education and the Workforce full Committee Chairman, Representative Kline, was in attendance at the hearing and spoke positively about the need to improve the quality of child care. This could be the year that Congress passes CCDBG legislation! Stay tuned!